By Reem Sharaf

On June 29th, 2017, Trump’s Arab and Muslim Ban went into effect. The Supreme Court’s decision to uphold the ban, commonly referred to as Muslim Ban 3.0, has had a negative impact on travel and tourism to and from the United States.

On top of the decreased number of allowed applicants, the ban will suspend the entry and visa issuance of individuals from Iran, Libya, Somalia, Sudan, Syria, and Yemen who don’t have a “bona fide relationship with a person or entity in the United States”. To establish a bona fide relationship with a person, you need to have a documented close familial relationship with a person in the United States. To establish a bona fide relationship with an entity, you need to have a documented and formal relationship with an institution – university, college, company, organization, etc. In either case, the burden of proof falls on the applicant and the decision to accept this proof is subject to the specific airport official who interviews the applicant.

On June 26, following the Supreme Court’s decision to keep the ban, President Trump tweeted “Very grateful for the 9-0 decision from the U. S. Supreme Court. We must keep America SAFE”. Considering the Court did not give any further explanation or guidelines on how this ban will decrease the threat of terrorism, there is no reasoning or data yet to corroborate President Trump’s statement of safety. On the contrary, as history has shown us, the majority of people who have committed acts of terrorism on American soil – for instance Tashfeen Malik from the San Bernardino attack – were people who would not have been barred entry to the United States under the current guidelines.   

This discrepancy has left many travelers at the mercy of border patrol. Many have been unfairly detained, questioned, and denied visas; from everyday nationals, to the son of Muhammad Ali, and to the 6-girl robotics team from Afghanistan. Back in May, the State Department published data showing the rate of visas granted in April 2017, to individuals from Muslim-majority countries was down nearly 20% compared to those granted in April. Looking further at the data, the rate of visas granted to individuals from the countries specified in the ban is down by 55% compared to April 2016.   

Similarly, ForwardKeys, a company that predicts future travel patterns based on daily booking rates from around the world has reported a significant decline in booking rate and travel to the United States following the ban. Specifically, data shows there has been a 6.5% decline in international travel to the United States compared to last year. Another company that predicts future travel patterns, Hopper has found that there has been a 17% drop in flight searches for travel to the United States from an international country.      

Not taking into account the concerning consequence this ban has on our foreign relations or our increased rate of domestic hate crimes, this ban has negatively impacted people’s desire to visit the United States. This decreased rate of travel and tourism without a doubt will continue to negatively impact our economy, and the hope is, as a business man, President Trump will realize the theoretical benefits of this ban do not out way the actual loss. As lady liberty stands tall and proud welcoming her visitors, we too are capable of hospitability without compromising evidence based methods to protecting our citizens.          

  

‭ ‬بقلم‭ ‬ريم‭ ‬شرف

في‭ ‬التاسع‭ ‬والعشرون‭ ‬من‭ ‬يونيو‭ ‬‮٢٠١٧‬‭ ‬تم‭ ‬تفعيل‭ ‬قرار‭ ‬الرئيس‭ ‬الأمريكي‭ ‬ترامب‭ ‬والقاضي‭ ‬بمنع‭ ‬دخول‭ ‬رعايا‭ ‬من‭ ‬سبع‭ ‬دول‭ ‬عربية‭ ‬واسلامية‭ ‬والذي‭ ‬يعرف‭ ‬بالمسليم‭ ‬بان‭. ‬وكان‭ ‬قرار‭ ‬المحكمة‭ ‬بتفعيل‭ ‬هذا‭ ‬القرار‭ ‬والمعروف‭ ‬بمسلم‭ ‬بان‭ ‬‮٣‬‭ ‬له‭ ‬اثار‭ ‬سلبية‭ ‬على‭ ‬حركة‭ ‬السفر‭ ‬والسياحة‭ ‬الى‭ ‬الولايات‭ ‬المتحدة‭.‬

وبالإضافة‭ ‬الى‭ ‬تخفيض‭ ‬عدد‭ ‬الطلبات‭ ‬فقانون‭ ‬المنع‭ ‬يرفض‭ ‬دخول‭ ‬حاملي‭ ‬الفيز‭ ‬لأشخاص‭ ‬من‭ ‬كل‭ ‬من‭ ‬ايران‭ ‬وليبيا‭ ‬والصومال‭ ‬والسودان‭ ‬وسوريا‭ ‬واليمن‭ ‬والذين‭ ‬ليس‭ ‬لديهم‭ ‬علاقة‭ ‬مباشرة‭ ‬في‭ ‬الولايات‭ ‬المتحدة‭. ‬ولإثبات‭ ‬العلاقة‭ ‬المباشرة‭ ‬يجب‭ ‬تقديم‭ ‬وثائق‭ ‬تثبت‭ ‬هذه‭ ‬العلاقة‭ ‬الوثيقة‭ ‬في‭ ‬الولايات‭ ‬المتحدة‭ ‬بما‭ ‬فيها‭ ‬العلاقة‭ ‬مع‭ ‬مؤسسات‭ ‬مثل‭ ‬الجامعات‭ ‬والكليات‭ ‬والشركات‭ ‬والمنظمات‭ ‬وغيرها‭. ‬ويقع‭ ‬عاتق‭ ‬تقديم‭ ‬مثل‭ ‬هذه‭ ‬الوثائق‭ ‬على‭ ‬الشخص‭ ‬الذي‭ ‬يود‭ ‬دخول‭ ‬الولايات‭ ‬المتحدة‭ ‬وتعود‭ ‬المسؤلية‭ ‬في‭ ‬اتخاذ‭ ‬القرار‭ ‬الى‭ ‬موظف‭ ‬المطار‭ ‬الذي‭ ‬يقوم‭ ‬بمقابلة‭ ‬الشخص‭ ‬المتقدم‭ ‬لطلب‭ ‬الدخول‭. ‬

وبعد‭ ‬قرار‭ ‬المحكمة‭ ‬العليا‭ ‬بالـ‭ ‬‮٢٦‬‭ ‬من‭ ‬يونيو‭ ‬‮٢٠١٧‬‭ ‬بتفعيل‭ ‬المنع‭ ‬قام‭ ‬الرئيس‭ ‬الأمريكي‭ ‬بنشر‭ ‬تعليق‭ ‬على‭ ‬تويتر‭ ‬جاء‭ ‬فيه‭ ‬“أنا‭ ‬شاكر‭ ‬جداً‭ ‬لتصويت‭ ‬المحكمة‭ ‬العليا‭ ‬بـ‭ ‬‮٩‬‭ ‬مقابل‭ ‬صفر‭. ‬يجب‭ ‬أن‭ ‬نبقي‭ ‬امريكا‭ ‬امنة”‭. ‬وبما‭ ‬أن‭ ‬المحكمة‭ ‬لم‭ ‬تعطي‭ ‬اية‭ ‬تعليمات‭ ‬عن‭ ‬كيف‭ ‬سيقوم‭ ‬قانون‭ ‬المنع‭ ‬بخفض‭ ‬مستوى‭ ‬التهديدات‭ ‬بالإرهاب‭ ‬فلا‭ ‬توجد‭ ‬اية‭ ‬معلومات‭ ‬او‭ ‬اسباب‭ ‬تدعم‭ ‬مقولة‭ ‬الرئيس‭ ‬بزيادة‭ ‬الأمن‭.  ‬وعلى‭ ‬العكس‭ ‬فإن‭ ‬الأحداث‭ ‬السابقة‭ ‬تؤكد‭ ‬بأن‭ ‬الأشخاص‭ ‬الذين‭ ‬قاموا‭ ‬بعمليات‭ ‬على‭ ‬الأراضي‭ ‬الأمريكية‭ ‬مثل‭ ‬تشفين‭ ‬مالك‭ ‬في‭ ‬سان‭ ‬براندينو‭ ‬هم‭ ‬اناس‭ ‬لن‭ ‬يمنعهم‭ ‬القانون‭ ‬الجديد‭ ‬من‭ ‬دخول‭ ‬الولايات‭ ‬المتحدة‭. ‬

وهذا‭ ‬التناقض‭ ‬يجعل‭ ‬المسافرين‭ ‬تحت‭ ‬رحمة‭ ‬رجل‭ ‬الحدود‭. ‬فالكثيرين‭ ‬قد‭ ‬اوقفوا‭ ‬واستجوبوا‭ ‬ومنعوا‭ ‬من‭ ‬الدخول‭ ‬ومن‭ ‬جنسيات‭ ‬عديدة‭ ‬ومنهم‭ ‬ابن‭ ‬محمد‭ ‬علي‭ ‬وفريق‭ ‬الروبوت‭ ‬الأفغاني‭ ‬المكون‭ ‬من‭ ‬ستة‭ ‬فتيات‭. ‬وفي‭ ‬شهر‭ ‬مايو‭ ‬الماضي‭ ‬قام‭ ‬وزارة‭ ‬الخارجية‭ ‬بنشر‭ ‬معلومات‭ ‬عن‭ ‬الفيز‭ ‬التي‭ ‬اعطيت‭ ‬في‭ ‬شهر‭ ‬ابريل‭. ‬وبالتمعن‭ ‬بالمعلومات‭ ‬التي‭ ‬نشرت‭ ‬فإن‭ ‬عددالفيز‭ ‬التي‭ ‬اعطيت‭ ‬لأشخاص‭ ‬من‭ ‬الدول‭ ‬الممنوعة‭ ‬قد‭ ‬انخفض‭ ‬بنسبة‭ ‬‮٥٥‬٪‭ ‬مقارنة‭ ‬بنفس‭ ‬الشهر‭ ‬من‭ ‬سنة‭ ‬‮٢٠١٦‬‭. ‬

وكذلك‭ ‬اكدت‭ ‬معلومات‭ ‬نشرتها‭ ‬مؤسسة‭ ‬فوروردكي‭ ‬والتي‭ ‬تتوقع‭ ‬معدلات‭ ‬السفر‭ ‬المستقبلية‭ ‬بناء‭ ‬على‭ ‬الحجوزات‭ ‬اليومية‭ ‬من‭ ‬حول‭ ‬العالم‭ ‬فقد‭ ‬استنتجت‭ ‬انخفاضاً‭ ‬حاداً‭ ‬في‭ ‬الحجوزات‭ ‬الى‭ ‬الولايات‭ ‬المتحدة‭ ‬بعد‭ ‬قانون‭ ‬منع‭ ‬السفر‭. ‬وتدل‭ ‬المعلومات‭ ‬والدراسات‭ ‬بأن‭ ‬نسبة‭ ‬السفر‭ ‬الدولية‭ ‬الى‭ ‬الولايات‭ ‬المنحدة‭ ‬انخفضت‭ ‬بنسبة‭ ‬‮٦‬‭.‬‮٥‬٪‭ ‬مقارنة‭ ‬بالسنة‭ ‬السابقة‭. ‬وكذلك‭ ‬دلت‭ ‬دراسة‭ ‬اخرى‭ ‬اجرتها‭ ‬مؤسسة‭ ‬هوبر‭ ‬والتي‭ ‬وجدت‭ ‬بأن‭ ‬عمليات‭ ‬البحث‭ ‬عن‭ ‬رحلات‭ ‬الى‭ ‬الولايات‭ ‬المتحدة‭ ‬انخفضت‭ ‬بنسبة‭ ‬‮١٧‬٪‭ ‬حول‭ ‬العالم‭. 

وهناك‭ ‬العديد‭ ‬من‭ ‬التأثيرات‭ ‬الأخرى‭ ‬والتي‭ ‬سببها‭ ‬قانون‭ ‬منع‭ ‬السفر‭ ‬على‭ ‬نواحي‭ ‬عديدة‭ ‬مثل‭ ‬العلاقات‭ ‬الدولية‭ ‬وزيادة‭ ‬جرائم‭ ‬الكراهية‭ ‬مما‭ ‬اثر‭ ‬على‭ ‬اهتمام‭ ‬الزوار‭ ‬بزيارة‭ ‬الولايات‭ ‬المتحدة‭. ‬وهذا‭ ‬الإنخفاض‭ ‬سيكون‭ ‬له‭ ‬تأثيرات‭ ‬سلبية‭ ‬على‭ ‬الإقتصاد‭ ‬الأمريكي‭ ‬وربما‭ ‬يصل‭ ‬الرئيس‭ ‬الأمريكي‭ ‬وهو‭ ‬رجل‭ ‬اعمال‭ ‬على‭ ‬استيعاب‭ ‬أن‭ ‬مزايا‭ ‬هذا‭ ‬القانون‭ ‬النظرية‭ ‬لها‭ ‬اضرار‭ ‬كبيرة‭ ‬على‭ ‬ارض‭ ‬الواقع‭. ‬فكما‭ ‬يقف‭ ‬تمثال‭ ‬الحرية‭ ‬شامخاً‭ ‬وفخوراً‭ ‬يرحب‭ ‬بالزائرين‭ ‬يجب‭ ‬علينا‭ ‬ايضاً‭ ‬ان‭ ‬نكون‭ ‬على‭ ‬استعداد‭ ‬بالترحيب‭ ‬الكريم‭ ‬بالزوار‭ ‬مع‭ ‬نوفير‭ ‬الحماية‭ ‬للمواطن‭.‬