By Rawaa Ali

Nowruz is the first day of spring, dates back to the Sumerian civilization and the Zoroastrian religion in ancient Persia, is celebrated by the Iraqi Kurds on 21 March every year, amidst the beautiful mountainous nature of the country, where the Kurds mixes the folklore clothes with dabke and wedding festivals.

Nowruz is considered one of the old holidays with a human heritage full of good, optimism, joy, pride, hope and a deep sense of freedom, where the night is equal with daytime; the natural transformation of the climate and the entry into the beginning of spring month, in which life is renewed in accordance with the cultures of the peoples celebrating Nowruz.

This beautiful annual tradition is a cornerstone of the national and popular components for the Kurds in particular and the Arabs in general. It represents the New Year in the Kurdish calendar adopted about 27 centuries ago. The celebration of Nowruz is embodied by rituals and customs that are originally due to the geography of Kurdistan and the Zacros, the first people to celebrate Nowruz, and continued to celebrate it over the centuries until it became a symbolic event, where four hundred million people celebrate every year in Iraq, Iran, Turkey and Syria, even the European cities.  Kurdish bands and dances are the most important traditions of the occasion, where people go to the wild to embrace the nature and to start dance rings with intertwined hands. For this occasion, delicious meals are prepared, and journeys are held. The story of this feast is a long one and too ancient, dating back to 600 BC.

According to the legend, which no one knows for sure it’s accuracy and validity, there was an oppressive ruler who oppressed and tormented his people.  A man named Kawa confronted him, he used to work as a smith, and determined to get rid of his injustice. When he won, he set fire to the top of the mountains; to indicate the end of the injustice, repression and abuse era. That is why setting fire is considered  a liturgy, held  by the celebrants the night before the ceremony.

It is noted that the Kurdish families wear the traditional Kurdish dress decorated with bright colors. Embellishments and luxurious cloth that radiates bright colors in the spring; to celebrate this period. It represents the emergence of greenery, spring and the spread of fertility, with both environmental and spiritual meaning. It is considered a folklore legacy of generations since it was their uniforms in the past centuries. Now, people wear it on occasions; every woman, young woman and young man must possess even one Kurdish dress. It is associated with events, especially national ones, where the Kurdish woman boasted wearing this dress. It suppose to charms who looks at her with his glamor and bright colors inspired by the beautiful nature. It is characterized by mountains and plains, women look like a masterpiece. Women are keen on wearing it on holidays, happy occasions and family visits.

In 2010, UNESCO decided to include Nowruz holidays in the Model List of the Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity.  It recognized March 21, as the International Day of Nowruz, according to the Encyclopedia of Wikipedia. The Nowruz Festival was held in 2017 for the fourth time near Washington, Tyson Corner, Virginia. It is considered a good opportunity for people to mix, enjoy the exchange of conversations, ideas, and knowledge of various cultural practices and traditions.

Our congratulations for you on the occasion of the Spring Festival inlaid with Nowruz breathe for all members of the Arab and the Kurdish community.

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Rawaa Ali is an Iraqi graduate of Cinema and TV Production. She has more than 15 years experience in TV and radio production. Her Arabic writing and editing experience includes writing and editing news, social, cultural and entertainment, scripts, and scenario for documentaries and stories.

بقلم‭ ‬رواء‭ ‬علي‭ ‬

نوزوز‭ ‬أول‭ ‬أيام‭ ‬الربيع‭, ‬إمتداداً‭ ‬إلى‭ ‬الحضارة‭ ‬السومرية‭ ‬والديانة‭ ‬الزرداشتية‭  ‬في‭ ‬بلاد‭ ‬فارس‭ ‬القديمة‭, ‬يحتفل‭ ‬به‭ ‬أكراد‭ ‬العراق‭ ‬في‭ ‬21‭ ‬مارس‭/‬أذار‭ ‬من‭ ‬كل‭ ‬عام‭, ‬وسط‭ ‬الطبيعة‭ ‬الجبلية‭ ‬الخلابة‭ ‬التي‭ ‬تمتزج‭ ‬بها‭ ‬الكُرديات‭ ‬بزيّهن‭ ‬الفلكلوري‭ ‬مع‭ ‬الدبكات‭ ‬ومهرجانات‭ ‬الأفراح‭. ‬

يعتبر‭ ‬نوروز‭ ‬من‭ ‬الأعياد‭ ‬القديمة‭ ‬ذات‭ ‬التراث‭ ‬الإنساني‭ ‬المفعم‭ ‬بالخير‭ ‬والتفاؤل‭ ‬والفرح‭ ‬والزهو‭ ‬والأمل‭ ‬والإحساس‭ ‬العميق‭ ‬بالحرية‭, ‬حيث‭ ‬يتساوى‭ ‬الليل‭ ‬مع‭ ‬النهار‭; ‬والتحول‭ ‬الطبيعي‭ ‬في‭ ‬المناخ‭ ‬والدخول‭ ‬في‭ ‬أول‭ ‬شهر‭ ‬فصل‭ ‬الربيع‭ ‬الذي‭ ‬تتجدد‭ ‬فيه‭ ‬الحياة‭ ‬حسب‭ ‬ثقافات‭ ‬الشعوب‭ ‬المحتفلة‭ ‬بنوروز‭.‬

أن‭ ‬هذا‭ ‬التقليد‭ ‬السنوي‭ ‬الجميل‭ ‬جدا‭ ‬أن‭ ‬يكون‭ ‬ركنا‭ ‬أساسياً‭ ‬من‭ ‬أركان‭ ‬المكونات‭ ‬القومية‭ ‬والشعبية‭ ‬للأكراد‭ ‬خاصة‭ ‬ً‭ ‬والعرب‭ ‬عامة‭. ‬أنه‭ ‬يمثل‭ ‬رأس‭ ‬السنة‭ ‬الجديدة‭ ‬في‭ ‬التقويم‭ ‬الكُردي‭ ‬المعتمد‭ ‬منذ‭ ‬نحو‭ ‬27‭ ‬قرناً‭. ‬يتجسد‭ ‬الاحتفال‭ ‬بعيد‭ ‬نوروز‭ ‬بطقوس‭ ‬وعادات‭ ‬معينة‭ ‬تعود‭ ‬بالأصل‭ ‬إلى‭ ‬جغرافية‭ ‬كردستان‭ ‬وأقوام‭ ‬زاكروس‭ ‬أولى‭ ‬الأقوام‭ ‬التي‭ ‬إحتفلت‭ ‬بنوروز‭ ‬وواصلت‭ ‬الإحتفال‭ ‬به‭ ‬عبر‭ ‬القرون‭, ‬حتى‭ ‬تحولت‭ ‬إلى‭ ‬مناسبة‭ ‬رمزية‭ ‬يقدر‭ ‬عدد‭ ‬المحتفلين‭ ‬فيها‭ ‬أربعمائة‭ ‬مليون‭ ‬نسمة‭ ‬في‭ ‬كل‭ ‬من‭ ‬العراق‭ ‬وإيران‭ ‬وتركيا‭ ‬وسورية‭ ‬وصولاً‭ ‬إلى‭ ‬المدن‭ ‬الأوروبية‭, ‬فأهازيج‭ ‬الفِرق‭ ‬والدبّكات‭ ‬الكُردية‭ ‬من‭ ‬أهم‭ ‬مظاهر‭ ‬الإحتفال‭ ‬بالمناسبة،‭ ‬حيث‭ ‬يتوجه‭ ‬الناس‭ ‬إلى‭ ‬البريّة‭ ‬لمعانقة‭ ‬الطبيعة‭ ‬وإقامة‭ ‬حلقات‭ ‬رقص‭ ‬تتشابك‭ ‬فيها‭ ‬الأيدي‭. ‬

وتعد‭ ‬لهذه‭ ‬المناسبة‭ ‬الرحلات‭ ‬ووجبات‭ ‬الطعام‭ ‬التقليدية‭ ‬الشهية‭. ‬إن‭ ‬حكاية‭ ‬هذا‭ ‬العيد،‭ ‬ضاربة‭ ‬في‭ ‬القدم،‭ ‬إذ‭ ‬تعود‭ ‬إلى‭ ‬ما‭ ‬قبل‭ ‬الميلاد‭ ‬بأكثر‭ ‬من‭ ‬ستمائة‭ ‬عام،‭ ‬ووفقاً‭ ‬للأسطورة‭ ‬التي‭ ‬لا‭ ‬يعلم‭ ‬مدى‭ ‬دقتها‭ ‬وصحتها‭ ‬أحد‭, ‬بإن‭ ‬هنالك‭ ‬حاكماً‭ ‬مستبداً‭ ‬كان‭ ‬يظلم‭ ‬شعبه‭ ‬ويعذبه،‭ ‬قام‭ ‬بالتصدي‭ ‬له‭ ‬شخص‭ ‬يدعى‭ ‬‮«‬كاوا‮»‬‭ ‬كان‭ ‬يعمل‭ ‬حداداً،‭ ‬وعقد‭ ‬العزم‭ ‬على‭ ‬التخلص‭ ‬من‭ ‬ظلمه‭ ‬وعندما‭ ‬انتصر‭ ‬أضرم‭ ‬النار‭ ‬على‭ ‬ذرى‭ ‬الجبال‭ ‬إيذاناً‭ ‬بانتهاء‭ ‬عهود‭ ‬الظلم‭ ‬والقمع‭ ‬والتعسف،‭ ‬ومن‭ ‬هنا‭ ‬يشكل‭ ‬إشعال‭ ‬النار‭ ‬طقساً‭ ‬يقوم‭ ‬به‭ ‬المحتفلون‭ ‬في‭ ‬الليلة‭ ‬التي‭ ‬تسبق‭ ‬الاحتفال‭. ‬

ومن‭ ‬الملاحظ‭ ‬أن‭ ‬العائلات‭ ‬الكردية‭ ‬ترتدي‭ ‬في‭ ‬هذه‭ ‬المناسبة‭ ‬الزيّ‭ ‬الكُردي‭ ‬التقليدي‭ ‬المزركش‭ ‬بألوانه‭ ‬الزاهية‭ ‬وتطريزاته‭ ‬وقماشه‭ ‬الفاخر‭ ‬الذي‭ ‬يشع‭ ‬بألوانه‭ ‬البرّاقة‭ ‬في‭ ‬الربيع‭ ‬إحتفالاً‭ ‬بهذه‭ ‬الفترة‭ ‬بإنبثاق‭ ‬الخضرة‭ ‬والربيع‭ ‬وإنتشار‭ ‬الخصب‭ ‬بمعانيه‭ ‬البيئية‭ ‬والروحية‭ ‬والذي‭ ‬يعد‭ ‬فلكلوراً‭ ‬توارثته‭ ‬الأجيال‭ ‬منذ‭ ‬أن‭ ‬كان‭ ‬زيّهم‭ ‬اليومي‭ ‬في‭ ‬القرون‭ ‬الماضية‭, ‬أما‭ ‬الآن‭ ‬فهو‭ ‬يرتدى‭ ‬في‭ ‬المناسبات‭; ‬ولابد‭ ‬لكل‭ ‬فتاة‭ ‬وإمرأة‭ ‬وشاب‭ ‬ورجل‭ ‬أن‭ ‬يمتلك‭ ‬ولو‭ ‬زيّاً‭ ‬كردياً‭ ‬واحداً‭ ‬لأنه‭ ‬يرتبط‭ ‬بالمناسبات‭ ‬وخاصة‭ ‬القومية‭ ‬منها‭, ‬حيث‭ ‬تتفاخر‭ ‬المرأة‭ ‬الكردية‭ ‬بإرتدائها‭ ‬هذا‭ ‬الزيّ‭ ‬الذي‭ ‬يسحر‭ ‬ناظره‭ ‬ببريقه‭ ‬ولمعانه‭ ‬وألوانه‭ ‬الزاهية‭ ‬المستوحاة‭ ‬من‭ ‬الطبيعة‭ ‬الخلّابة‭ ‬التي‭ ‬تمتاز‭ ‬بها‭ ‬المناطق‭ ‬الجبلية‭ ‬والسهول‭, ‬فتظهر‭ ‬المرأة‭ ‬وكأنها‭ ‬لوحة‭ ‬فنية‭ ‬ممزوجة‭ ‬فيها‭ ‬جميع‭ ‬ألوان‭ ‬ألطيف‭ ‬الزاهية‭, ‬حيث‭ ‬تحرص‭ ‬على‭ ‬إرتداءه‭ ‬في‭ ‬الأعياد‭ ‬والمناسبات‭ ‬السعيدة‭ ‬والزيارات‭ ‬العائلية‭. ‬

يذكر‭ ‬أن‭ ‬اليونسكو‭ ‬قررت‭ ‬عام‭ ‬2010م‭, ‬إدراج‭ ‬عيد‭ ‬نوروز‭ ‬في‭ ‬القائمة‭ ‬النموذجية‭ ‬للتراث‭ ‬الثقافي‭ ‬غير‭ ‬المادي‭ ‬للبشرية‭, ‬وأعترفت‭ ‬بيوم‭ ‬21‭ ‬آذار‭ ‬بوصفه‭ (‬يوم‭ ‬نوروز‭ ‬الدولي‭) ‬بحسب‭ ‬ما‭ ‬جاء‭ ‬في‭ ‬موسوعة‭ ‬وكيبيديا‭, ‬كما‭ ‬ويقام‭ ‬مهرجان‭ ‬نوروز‭ ‬للعام‭ ‬‮٢٠١٧‬‭ ‬وللمرة‭ ‬الرابعة‭ ‬بالقرب‭ ‬من‭ ‬العاصمة‭ ‬واشنطن‭ ‬في‭ ‬تايسون‭ ‬كورنر،‭ ‬بولاية‭ ‬فيرجينيا‭, ‬مما‭ ‬يشكل‭ ‬فرصة‭ ‬طيبة‭ ‬للناس‭ ‬للاختلاط‭ ‬والتمتع‭ ‬بتبادل‭ ‬الأحاديث‭ ‬والأفكار‭ ‬ومعرفة‭ ‬الممارسات‭ ‬والتقاليد‭ ‬الثقافية‭ ‬المختلفة‭.‬

ولكم‭ ‬منا‭ ‬بمناسبة‭ ‬عيد‭ ‬الربيع‭ ‬تهنئة‭ ‬مطعمة‭ ‬بنسمات‭ ‬يوم‭ ‬نوروز‭ ‬لكل‭ ‬أبناء‭ ‬الجالية‭ ‬العرب‭ ‬والأكراد‭.‬